The Low FODMAP Diet Is Not Soy Free
I used to eat a lot of soy. Soymilk in my tea morning and midday. Soymilk with my cereal. Tofu a few times per week. Soy sauce frequently used as a condiment. Edamame as a snack of choice (love popping the beans out of the pod) or used in dishes like stir-fries and soy based succotash.
Soy nuts as a snack. Soy flour as a gluten-free alternative; drinking soy based protein drinks after workouts…I could go on and on. And I thought I was eating healthily!
For many this might have been the case, but for someone who is sensitive to FODMAPS (of course I didn’t know it at the time), these were largely not good inclusions, particularly stacked on top of one another. I was overdosing on soy, actually contributing to my digestive upset, and had no idea that soy was an issue.
Then I discovered the low-FODMAP diet and learned that some soy was okay and some was decidedly not. Huh? Yeah, it was confusing at first until I understood why.
If you are new to the low FODMAP diet be sure to read all of our articles in our Low FODMAP Diet Basics Collection so you have a good understanding of what is to follow.
So Which Soy Products are Okay?
Here’s the deal: soybeans, as in the whole bean, contain fructans and oligosaccharides, which are FODMAPs that we want to avoid during the Elimination Phase of the diet until we go through the Challenge Phase and know whether we are sensitive to these particular FODMAPs or not.
There are exceptions, such as the frozen edamame (see below), firm tofu and soy sauce. There are also some variables, such as those that are serving size dependent, like soymilk made from hulled soybeans.
Related Articles: Soy Products: Low FODMAP or Not? and Are Soy Sauce and Tamari Low FODMAP?
Below is a list of soy products that you can include in a low-FODMAP diet and a list of items which to steer clear of.
*During the fermentation process that creates miso, the proteins in the soybeans break down into peptides and amino acids, such as glutamic acid. The result is a certain kind of meaty and robust flavor that we know as umami.
** Note that soy lecithin has not been formally lab tested by Monash University but as it is a fat and does not contain any carbohydrates, it is believed to be low FODMAP.
You may want to read: How Fermentation Affects the FODMAP Content in Soy Foods and Cabbage
Soy Products You Should Avoid When Following The Low FODMAP Diet
- Cooked whole soy beans, starting from dried beans
- Silk or soft tofu
- Soymilk made from whole soybeans. Unfortunately, almost all the soymilk available in the U.S. is made with whole soybeans. This might differ depending on where you live. If a product specifically says hulled soybeans, you could try it as it might have a lower FODMAP content than whole soybean soy milk.
Here are the answers to some commonly asked questions.
How Come Edamame Are Low FODMAP But Dried Soy Beans Are High FODMAP?
Edamame are young, green soybeans that are eaten at this level of maturity. Even if they have been frozen and then steamed or boiled, they are still “young” soybeans. Dried soybeans are mature and have a higher FODMAP content, hence the differing designations.
Why is Firm Tofu Allowed and Silken Tofu Considered High FODMAP?
Tofu is made from curdling fresh soymilk with a variety of coagulants, such as nigari (derived from seawater), and then pressing the curds in a press, similarly to how cheese is made.
The FODMAPs in soybeans are GOS and fructans and they are water soluble, so the more the tofu is pressed and condensed, the firmer it becomes and fewer FODMAPs remain.
Monash University says that “Firm, drained” tofu is allowed in 160 g servings and “Plain” is allowed in 170 g servings.
Soft and silken tofu is coagulated but not drained, so the FODMAP content remains high. Avoid during your Elimination Phase, but perhaps you will be able to add it back into your diet if GOS and fructans are not your triggers.
Why are Miso, Soy Sauce and Tempeh “Green Light” Foods?
All of these traditional foods involve some level of fermentation. During the fermentation process FODMAPs are reduced, yielding a low-FODMAP food. Tempeh is inoculated with a mold typically derived from Rhizopus oligosporus or Rhizopus oryzae; koji, a type of mold made from Aspergillus oryzae, is used to make miso and soy sauce.
All of these fermented products can be enjoyed even during the Elimination Phase in the servings recommended by Monash University.
Are Soy and Soya the Same Thing?
Yes, they are. Typically in America, you will see the term “soy” on a label, while in other areas of the world you will see the term “soya”.
Can I Eat Yogurt Made From Soy Milk?
Yogurt made from soy milk will have the same issues as soymilk itself; look for products made from soy protein isolate and not whole soybeans. That said, it is not a given as these products have not been tested. Sample some and see how you feel.
Can I Use Protein Powders That Are Soy Based?
Soy based protein powders are of interest as many people are looking for a protein powder to accompany their workouts and are simultaneously on the low-FODMAP diet. These folks have to become serious label readers to determine which brands and ingredients are appropriate.
Look for the term soy protein “isolate”. This literally refers to the fact that the protein has been isolated and that the product is nearly 90% protein. Soybeans are hulled, flaked and defatted and then milled into a fine flour.
Fiber is reduced during the process as well creating a product that we can eat during the Elimination Phase and beyond. Watch protein powder labels for other FODMAPs though, like inulin for instance.
We have an entire article you may want to read: All About Low FODMAP Meal Replacements, Protein Powders & Protein Shakes
Stick with our list of Low and High FODMAP soy products and you will be okay. We know that it is maddening when a seemingly conflicting result appears. All we can say is that we stick with our Monash University app, check for updates, and follow the science.
The low FODMAP diet is not a soy free diet, so you will be able to continue to enjoy many soy-based products.
This article originally appeared on FODMAP Everyday
Tell Us What You Think
4 comments for “Soy and The Low FODMAP Diet”
How about natto a kind of fermented soybeans that is slimy but very healthy especially for those with osteoporosis!
Jan, we are well familiar with natto from a culinary perspective, but it has not been lab-tested for FODMAPs. The best suggestion is to try small amounts top assess your own tolerance during your Challenge Phase. How YOU respond is the most important thing.
What a about medium firm tofu. You talk about Firm and Extra Firm and Soft but didn’t mention medium. Also what about some of the processed food products for vegans that contain soy isolate such as Yves Gluten Free burgers. And not soy but would also like to know if the Beyond Meat products are low fodmaps.
Anne, thank you for wiring. In the US the tofu that has been tested low FODMAP is called Firm and Extra Firm. In Australia Monash calls their equivalents Plain and Firm. No one has tested and reported on Medium. I personally would not use it as it has been pressed less, and therefore would contain more FODMAPs. When it comes to soy isolate, our Monash trained RDs suggest that when the ingredient listed says “soy protein isolate”, then that would be a good bet. Without the word “isolate”, no one knows if the product has not been lab tested, but it would not be recommended. Here are some recent notes compiled between me and one of our RDs in terms of the Beyond Burger: “Pea protein isolate is low. Protein content is 20 grams for this burger, suspect the pea protein falls within the safe serve. Looks like the ingredients changed a bit. I think the natural flavors need to be confirmed. They were < 2% in the past, they are now present higher on ingredient list. Not sure about the apple extract. I think it would be worth trying if natural flavors do not contain garlic or onion."So, you need to check AND also be aware that Monash rolled back their statements about pea protein and are now NOT recommending it unless it has been lab tested (the brand or item specifically).